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Overview of different business models

For a description of the PPP projects according to the so-called F model, see F model.

In the A model, a private partner carries out the construction of motorway sections, their constructional and operational maintenance, and the proportionate financing for a period of usually 30 years. At the end of the contract period, the responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the road section is handed back to the federal government and federal state in an agreed condition.

The A model is closely related to the introduction of the distance-based toll for heavy goods vehicles in 2005. The private partner is remunerated through the toll generated by heavy goods vehicles on a given road section. This toll is collected by the Federal Government and forwarded to the private partner. In addition, the private partner can receive initial public financing (start-up financing) if toll generated from heavy goods vehicles alone is insufficient to refinance
investments. Since the private partner is not authorised to collect the toll, there is no requirement for any statutory basis for the A model in contrast to the F model. Therefore there is no link between the A model and the Fernstraßenbauprivatfinanzierungsgesetz (FStrPrivFinG - German Act on Private Financing for Transport Infrastructure).

The remuneration model related to the traffic volume was further developed to an unity toll model: The remuneration is not calculated on the actuall incurred toll on the concession section as in the A model, but by the unity toll rate per heavy goods vehicle and kilometres. This eliminates the need to determine the remuneration according to changing toll rates and a changing composition in each toll class. The unity toll rate level shall be determined in competition.

Additionally, there is the availability model, in which the remuneration is not dependent on the amount of traffic in contrast to the aforementioned business models. Instead, the remuneration results from the availability of the road section and the quality of the service provided. The fee is reduced in the event of any limited availability (lane or speed reduction) of the contracted road sction and quality defects. 

Compared to the original A model, the customisation of roads is not restricted to the expansion of highway sections, suitable road sections are also investigated on national roads. In addition, projects concerning new construction and purely maintenance projects without
construction are also possible. Customisation is focused each time on the existing condition or the characteristics of the road section.

The implementation of a PPP project in the federal highways sector is only realised if the value for money assessment (this means a cost comparison and a comparison of non-financial benefits as well) required in accordance with article 7, paragraph 2 BHO (Federal Financial Regulation) reveals that a PPP project is at least as efficient as a conventional realisation. The value for money assessment is guided by the recommendations of the guide for "Wirtschaftlichkeitsuntersuchungen bei ÖPP-Projekten" (often called "FMK Leitfaden" (FMK stands for the Finance Minister Conference)"; see also the download section), which the VIFG has participated in. The implementation of PPP
projects in the federal highways sector is accompanied in the framework of a contract management by the road construction authorities of the federal states or the DEGES on their behalf and the BMVI (Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure) together with the VIFG.

Advantages of PPP projects in the federal highways sector are:

  • Timely expansion of highway and national roads that can currently not be funded by the budget
  • Efficient implementation through integration of live cycle stages and competition
  • Quality assurance and quality improvement over the contract period
  • Easing the burden on public authorities with regards to operation and maintenance
  • Use of the toll on heavy goods vehicles to finance transport infrastructure and thus partly as user financing

Overview of PPP projects in the federal highways sector

Overview tables for PPP projects in German federal roads sector

The Pilot Projects based on the A model were awarded in years 2007 to 2009. The investment in these projects had an amount of approximately 1,1 billion euros:

BAB A 8 AS Augsburg‐West – AD München‐Allach
Construction completed
BAB A 4 State border Hesse/Thuringia – AS Gotha (so called "Bypass Hörselberge")
Via Solutions Thüringen
Construction completed
BAB A 1 AD Buchholz – AK Bremen
A1 mobil
Construction completed
BAB A 5 Malsch – Offenburg
Via Solutions Südwest
Construction completed

Stand: May 2017

On 26th of June, 2008 the German federeal minister of transport launched eight further highway projects for realisation under the PPP scheme in the following years. The funding of these projects is totalling around 3 billion euros:

BAB A 8 II AK Ulm/Elchingen – AS Augsburg-West
Construction completed
BAB A 9 AS Lederhose – State Border Thuringia/Bavaria
Via Gateway Thüringen
Construction completed
BAB A 7 AS Neumünster-Nord – south of AD HH-Nordwest
Via Solutions Nord
Under construction
BAB A 94 AS Forstinning - AS Marktl
Under construction
BAB A 7 II South of AS Bockenem – AS Göttingen
Via Niedersachsen
Under construction folgt 
BAB A 6 AS Wiesloch/Rauenberg – AK Weinsberg
Under construction
BAB A 1 / BAB A 30 Lotte – Münster / Rheine – Lotte In the pipeline  
BAB A 44 Diemelstadt – Kassel-Süd In the pipeline  
BAB A 61 / BAB A 650, A 65 A 61 with further sections of A650, A65 (Worms – State Border Rhineland-Palatinate/Baden-Württemberg) In the pipeline  

Stand: May 2017
* For projects in the pipeline the section is not yet finally determined. The former scheduled projects on the A45 in Hesse and the A60 in Rhineland-Palatinate are not longer pursued.

The Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, in consultation with the Federal Ministry of Finance, has launched a third batch of so-called "New Generation" PPPs in May 2015. With this new generation financing of transport infrastructured is formed in a new way, payment mechanisms are optimized and the scope for PPP projects is widened. The projects that make up the "new generation" of PPPs comprise around 600 kilometres of federal highways (federal highways and national roads), involving investment totalling around 7 billion euros. On top of this, there is a further approximately 7 billion euros for other components of PPP projects, (pro rata) funding, operation and structural maintenance.

Additionally to upgrading schemes on busy highways the new generation is extended to cover structural maintenance projects and schemes, to fill existing gaps plus, and to implement PPP projects for the first time on national roads.

BAB A 10 / BAB A 24 AS Neuruppin (A24) – AD Pankow/State Border BB (A10) Under Construction  
BAB A 3 AK Biebelried – AK Fürth/Erlangen In tender  
BAB A 4 AS Gotha – State border Thuringia/Saxony
(Maintenance project)
In the pipeline  
BAB A 6 AK Weinsberg – AK Feuchtwangen/Crailsheim In the pipeline  
BAB A 8 Rosenheim – Federal border Germany/Austria In the pipeline  
BAB A 49 AS Fritzlar - AD Ohmtal In Tender  
BAB A 57 AK Köln-Nord – AK Moers In the pipeline  
E 233
(National Road))
AS Meppen (A31) – AS Cloppenburg (A1) In the pipeline
B 247 a): Bypass Kallmerode In Tender  
b): Mühlhausen – west of Bad Langensalza In Tender  
BAB A 20 Elbquerung
(scheduled as F Model)
In the pipeline  
BAB A 26 Hamburg (A1) – Rübke
(scheduled as F Model)
In the pipeline  

Stand: April 2018
* For projects in the pipeline the section is not yet finally determined.

 The start of procurement procedures of the announced projects is expected successively in the next years. The start oft he PPP procurement procedures depends on when the public authorities give the building rights and on positive result of the value for money assessment.

Further documents about PPP projects in German federal highways sector can be downloaded in the download section.